What is epenthesis

In Japanese[ edit ] A limited number of words in Japanese use epenthetic consonants to separate vowels. Most speakers pronounce borrowings with spelling pronunciationsand others try to approximate the nearest equivalents in Portuguese of the phonemes in the original language.

It exhibits epenthesis on both morphemes: However, modern loans may not end in consonants. What is epenthesis uses a number of consonant clusters in its words, and since it is designed to be as universal as possible, it allows a type of anaptyxis called "buffering" to be used if a speaker finds a cluster difficult or impossible to pronounce.

That may well produce impermissible final clusters. Languages use various vowels, but schwa is quite common when it is available: In Standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels: In Finnish[ edit ] In Finnishthere are two epenthetic vowels and two nativization vowels.

However it is correct to call it epenthesis when viewed synchronically since the modern basic form of the verb is a and so the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form. A vowel sound that is nonexistent in Lojban is added between two consonants to make the word easier to pronounce.

In sign language[ edit ] A type of epenthesis in sign language is known as "movement epenthesis" and occurs, most commonly, during the boundary between signs while the hands move from the posture required by the first sign to that required by the next.

Informal speech[ edit ] Epenthesis most often occurs within unfamiliar or complex consonant clusters. The second is [e], connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings: French has a three level use of initial epenthesis depending on the time of incorporation: In the Gallo-Romance languageshowever, a prop vowel was added: Borrowed words[ edit ] Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable codas that are not permitted in the borrowing language.

Historical sound change[ edit ] End of word[ edit ] Many languages insert a so-called prop vowel at the end of a word to avoid the loss of a non-permitted cluster.

Nothing changes grammatically, including the spelling and the syllabication of the word. Some dialects also use [e] for voiced consonant clusters, which is deemed as stereotypical of the lower classes: Other examples exist in Modern Persian in which former word-initial consonant clusters, which were still extant in Middle Persianare regularly broken up: Turkish prefixes close vowels to loanwords with initial clusters of alveolar fricatives followed by another consonant: However, the pronunciation was often not written with double ll, and may have been the normal way of pronouncing a word starting in rel- rather than a poetic modification.

For example, the cartoon character Yogi Bear says "pic-a-nic basket" for "picnic basket. That is again a synchronic analysis, as the form with the vowel is the original form and the vowel was later often lost.


Epenthesis is sometimes used for humorous or childlike effect. Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages with affixes. The other Slavic languages instead metathesised the vowel and the consonant: In some cases, the problem was resolved by allowing a resonant to become syllabic or inserting a vowel in the middle of a cluster: In Dutchwhenever the suffix -er which has several meanings is attached to a word already ending in -r, an additional -d- is inserted in between.

Similarly, the agent noun of verkopen "to sell" is verkoper "salesperson"but the agent noun of uitvoeren "to perform" is uitvoerder "performer". Some dialects, like Savo and Ostrobothnianhave epenthesis instead and use the preceding vowel in clusters of type -l What is epenthesis - and -h C - in Savo also -nh.

The cluster can come about What is epenthesis a change in the phonotactics of the language that no longer permits final clusters. Another possibility is a sound change deleting vowels at the end of a word, which is a very common sound change.

Despite altering the phonetics of a word, the use of buffering is completely ignored by grammar. In Spanish, it is usual to find epenthetic vowels in sequences of plosive, flap, and vowel or labiodental fricative, flap, and vowel, normally in a non-emphatic pronunciation.

The same occurs in the song " Umbrella ". An exception is that in Pohjanmaa, -lj- and -rj- become -li- and -ri- respectively: Even if the word, such as a personal name, is native, a paragogic vowel is needed to connect a consonantal case ending to the word.

Also, the vowel sound used must not be confused with any existing Lojban vowel. However, a synchronic analysis, in keeping with the perception of most native speakers, would equally correctly see it as epenthesis: That is a synchronic analysis.

In Standard Finnish, they are slightly intensified before a consonant in a medial cluster: Middle of word[ edit ] Examples are common in many Slavic languageswhich had a preference for vowel-final syllables in earlier times.epenthesis - the insertion of a vowel or consonant into a word to make its pronunciation easier; "the insertion of a vowel in the plural of the word `bush' is epenthesis" articulation - the aspect of pronunciation that involves bringing articulatory organs together so as to shape the sounds of speech.

The Effects of Epenthesis on Spelling "Epenthesis occurs frequently, both in legal and in lay language. The addition of an i before the t in speciality is an example. The pronunciation of jewelry as 'jewelery' is a result of epenthesis, as is the pronunciation 'contentuous' for contentious.

Epenthesis definition, the insertion of one or more sounds in the middle of a word, as the schwa in the nonstandard pronunciation [el-uh m] /ˈɛl əm/ of elm.

See more. In phonology, epenthesis (/ ɪ ˈ p ɛ n θ ɪ s ɪ s /; Greek ἐπένθεσις) means the addition of one or more sounds to a word, especially to the interior of a word (at the beginning prothesis and at the end paragoge are commonly used).


Epenthesis is the stage that occurs between using a singleton and a cluster. I see it like this: it is better for us to spend more time helping a client practice the things he CAN do than to eternally try to get him to do things he CANNOT do. Definition of epenthesis plural epentheses play \ i-ˈpen(t)-thə-ˌsēz, e- \: the insertion or development of a sound or letter in the body of a word (such as \ə\ in \ˈa-thə-ˌlēt\ athlete).

What is epenthesis
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