Differences in thickness of the heart chamber walls are due to variations in the amount of myocardium present, which reflects the amount of force each chamber is required to generate. The second layer in the walls is the submucosa that supports the mucous membrane.
Urinary System Anatomy Kidneys The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs found along the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity. The urethra is a tubular structure that carries the urine from the urinary bladder to the outside. These small, dark red organs with a kidney-bean shape lie against the dorsal body wall in a retroperitoneal position beneath the parietal peritoneum in the superior lumbar region; they extend from the T12 to the L3 vertebra, thus they receive protection from the lower part of the rib cage.
Blood Vessels Blood vessels are the channels or conduits through which blood is distributed to body tissues. At the same time, waste products present in the blood are secreted into the filtrate. It also stimulates the osteoclasts of the skeletal system to break down bone matrix to release calcium ions into the blood.
They arise from the efferent arteriole that drains the glomerulus. When the blood becomes hypoxic, meaning that it is carrying deficient levels of oxygen, cells lining the capillaries begin producing EPO and release it into the bloodstream.
Small flaps of mucosa cover these openings and act as valves that allow urine to enter the bladder but prevent it from backing up from the bladder into the ureters.
The ends of the ureters extend slightly into the urinary bladder and are sealed at the point of entry to the bladder by the ureterovesical valves. The spleen contacts it cranioventrally. The renal sinus is located within an indentation on the medial side of the kidney The renal pelvis is located within the renal sinus All papillary ducts open here The renal pelvis then drains into the ureters The renal pelvis is lined with transitional epithelium Varies between species Contains mucous glands in the horse Divisions of the Kidney The kidney is divided into renal lobes from a structural point of view.
Urinary Bladder The urinary bladder is a sac-like hollow organ used for the storage of urine. In the ovine the kidneys are surrounded by very thick masses of fat which reduce the impact of the rumen on their location. One system, the pulmonary vessels, transports blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium.
At its caudoventral aspect in females is found the left Ovary. Portions of the renal cortex extend into the spaces between adjacent pyramids to form renal columns. Contraction of this muscle expels urine from the bladder.
The left adrenal gland can be found at the medial aspect of the cranial pole. The inner lining of the urinary bladder is a mucous membrane of transitional epithelium that is continuous with that in the ureters. At about this point, stretching of the bladder wall activates stretch receptors. After blood passes through the capillaries, it enters the smallest veins, called venules.ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Chronic Kidney Disease Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system is sometimes called the circulatory system.
It consists of the heart, which is a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Practice Quiz: Urinary System Anatomy and Physiology.
Renal pyramid, any of the triangular sections of tissue that constitute the medulla, or inner substance, of the kidney.
4. It is the hormone made by the kidneys, needed for absorption of calcium phosphate, the active form of vitamin D. Kidney Anatomy and Physiology. Vascular Anatomy.
The kidneys are highly vascular and receive up to 20% of the cardiac output—about 1 liter to L/min of blood flow. 2 Blood enters the kidneys through the renal arteries, which branch bilaterally from the abdominal aorta.
The renal artery divides into arterial branches that become.
The kidneys are paired organs which reside in the dorsal abdomen. One on the left and one on the right. Their role is to filter the blood through the glomerulus to form what is known as the filtrate.
It is important to understand the anatomy of the kidney so that you know how the diseases affect it. Chronic kidney disease affects the two fundamental parts of the kidney called the glomerulus and the tubules.
Kidney Disease – Chronic Renal Failure References ‘Kidney Health Week’ [online], Kidney Health Australia, Available at. The kidneys are surrounded by a renal cortex, a layer of tissue that is also covered by renal fascia (connective tissue) and the renal capsule. The renal cortex is granular tissue due to the presence of nephrons—the functional unit of the kidney—that are located deeper within the kidney, within the renal pyramids of the medulla.Download