An introduction to the origins and the history of electroshock therapy

The idea to use ECT in humans came first to him by watching pigs being anesthetised with electroshock before being butchered, as a kind of anesthesia, and so he convinced two colleagues, Lucio Bini and L.

A Cleveland psychiatrist who was active then once told me that the doctors and nurses used to chase the patients around the room to get them to take Metrazol. The electrodes deliver an electrical stimulus. There is probably no fictional story that so haunts our consciousness of a medical treatment.

Electroconvulsive Therapy History

Scottish Medical Journal 4: But physical treatments, and most especially ECT, aroused its strongest rejections. Now, psychiatrists estimate that aboutAmericans receive ECT. Few medical treatments have such disparate images. First, there were many examples of ECT being used to subdue and to control patients in psychiatric hospitals.

Troublesome patients received several shocks a day, many times without proper restraint or sedation. The conflicts over ECT have other sources. ECT was also physically dangerous when first developed. This school was typified by psychoanalysis, founded by Sigmund Freud in the beginning of the 20th.

This was not a major part of ECT practice, but this is not a comfort to gay people who received the treatment, for whom it could be traumatizing. British Journal of Psychiatry Curare is a muscle paralyzing agent which is extracted from South American plants used by Indians to make poison darts and arrows.

ECT use declined in the s and s, but revived starting in the early s. However, the relapse rate is also high, requiring the use of ongoing treatment like antidepressant medication.

Read the original article. Invariably, the bitemporal placement is used, whereby the electrodes are placed on the temples. His success rate was remarkable: It was because of this side effect that patients could not remember the treatments and had no ill feelings toward it.

It was controversial from the beginning, as patients being electrocuted was seen to be barbaric doctors experimented with voltages that were way too high by many in both the medical profession and the general public.

The good doctors were encouraged, curiously enough, by this reaction. Kalinowski a young German physician to help him in developing a method and an apparatus to deliver brief electric shocks to human beings. Methods of inducing seizure or convulsions as a way of treating psychiatric conditions were introduced as early on as the 16th Century.

Both organizations stress the critical role of informed consent in the ECT procedure. The use convulsive therapy was first documented in the London Medical Journal in Lancet5 December: He tested also strychnine, thebain, pilocarpin and pentilenetetrazol also known as metrazol, or cardiazolalways injecting them intramuscularly.

In bilateral ECT, the two electrodes are placed on both sides of the head. Immediately prior to treatment, a patient is given a short-acting anesthetic such as methohexitaletomidateor thiopental[1] a muscle relaxant such as suxamethonium succinylcholineand occasionally atropine to inhibit salivation.

The therapy became more popular again in the s when the benefits to patients with severe refractory depression became obvious. Through the s and s, the use of ECT became widespread.

Electroconvulsive therapy

The proceedings from this meeting were published in the American Journal of Psychiatry and within three years, convulsive therapy using cardiazol metrazol was being used across the world.

April Cognitive impairment is sometimes noticed after ECT. The conflicts over ECT have other sources. The breaktrough was inspired by a startling series of medical discoveries in microbiology, InRonald Ross had discovered in India that malaria was caused by a parasite transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito.

Fever and Mental Disease The first researcher to systematically pursue the link between fever and mental disease was the Austrian physician Julius Wagner von Jauregg. The rise of the anti-psychiatry movement By the s, the evidence that ECT was very effective for treating depression was robust.

Bad press turned into a series of legal actions involving the abuses of shock therapy. Yet many psychiatrists, and more importantly, patients, consider it to be a safe and effective treatment for severe depression and bipolar disorder.The history of ECT begins in the s with the idea of treating mental illness with convulsions.

Initially, convulsions were induced by orally taking camphor. The history of modern electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) dates back to when Italian psychiatrist Lucio Bini and neurologist Ugo Cerletti.

History of electroconvulsive therapy in the United Kingdom Jump to Origins of ECT The introduction in of succinylcholine, a safer synthetic alternative to curare, led to the more widespread use of modified ECT.

The history of electroconvulsive therapy is extremely interesting and shrouded in controversy. Learn where it began and what the theories and beliefs were at that time that led to its inception. Find out how it was received and how it was practiced throughout the world.

In this story of a mental health treatment procedure you'll also find an intriguing development when life imitates art.

An Historical Review of Electroconvulsive Therapy Bruce A. Wright, M.D. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh Pennsylvania An Historical Reviewof ElectroconvulsiveTherapy BruceA.

Wright, M.D. T he initial clinical trial ofelectroconvulsive therapy (ECT) was performed history of the therapeutic use of electricity dates to. Jul 12,  · For centuries people have been trying to figure out what makes the mind work, what makes it tick.

Electroconvulsive Therapy: A History of Controversy, but Also of Help

They've also been trying to figure out what is happening wh. 1 INTRODUCTION: THE ESSENTIALS I.

History of electroconvulsive therapy in the United Kingdom

THE CONTROVERSY Electroshock (also known as shock therapy, electroconvulsive treatment, convulsive therapy, ECT, EST, and ECS) is a psychiatric procedure involving the induction of a.

An introduction to the origins and the history of electroshock therapy
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